British Army in Northern Ireland

World War Two began on 3rd September 1939. By October that year, the first waves of British Army infantry troops had begun to arrive in Northern Ireland.

Northern Ireland District formed in 1922 after the partition of Ireland. There were 3 Regular Army regiments based in Ulster at the time, with District Headquarters in Belfast, Co. Antrim. The role of the district was one of internal security and defending the newly formed Northern Ireland. It came under the command of a Major General.

With the outbreak of the Second World War, the establishment of the Northern Ireland District increased. The 4 battalions based in Northern Ireland received postings overseas. Between October 1939 and April 1940, the Territorial Army 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division arrived to replace them.

On 20th June 1940, 61st Infantry Division joined 53rd Infantry Division in Northern Ireland. The areas of Northern Ireland District underwent further changes. The District divided into Northern Area under 61st Infantry Division and Southern Area under 53rd Infantry Division. On 12th July 1940, a Lieutenant General was appointed as General Officer Commanding British Troops in Northern Ireland (BTNI). At this time, Headquarters of VI Corps set up in Belfast, Co. Antrim but was absorbed into BTNI.

On 9th May 1943, it seemed the threat of an invasion through the Republic of Ireland was no longer viable. BTNI Headquarters amalgamated with Northern Ireland District to form a combined Headquarters in Lisburn, Co. Antrim. BTNI was downgraded back to a District Establishment in 1944.

53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division

In October 1939, the first of 53rd (Welsh) Infantry Division landed in Northern Ireland. This Division contained 158th, 159th, and 160th Infantry Brigades.

55th (West Lancashire) Infantry Division

On 21st December 1943, 55th Infantry Division landed in Northern Ireland. Elements of this Infantry Division remained based in Ulster until June 1945.

59th (Staffordshire) Infantry Division

In November 1941, 59th (Staffordshire) Infantry Division landed in Northern Ireland. This Division remained in Ulster when III Corps departed for Africa.

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45th Infantry Division

On 3rd February 1943, the lower establishment 45th Infantry Division of the British Army arrived in Northern Ireland for a period of training.

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61st Infantry Division

Raised by the British Army in 1939, 61st Infantry Division spent 3 years during the Second World War on defensive duties in Northern Ireland.

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148th Independent Infantry Brigade

148th Independent Infantry Brigade served in Northern Ireland between July 1940 and April 1942 to counteract the threat of an enemy invasion.